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Parental alienation

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Main PageFamily lawCustodyVisiting rights → Parental alienation


Main PageFatherSeparated fatherVisiting rights → Parental alienation


Parental alienation is a social dynamic, generally occurring due to divorce or separation, when a child expresses unjustified hatred or unreasonably strong dislike of one parent, making access by the rejected parent difficult or impossible.[1] These feelings may be influenced by negative comments by the other parent and by the characteristics, such as lack of empathy and warmth, of the rejected parent.[2] The term does not apply in cases of actual child abuse, when the child rejects the abusing parent to protect themselves.[3] Parental alienation is controversial in legal and mental health professions, both generally and in specific situations.[4][5] Terms related to parental alienation include child alienation, pathological alignments, visitation refusal, pathological alienation[6], the toxic parent and parental alienation syndrome[7] though the last term is a specific formulation of a medical syndrome proposed by psychiatrist Richard Gardner that is not well accepted.[8]

References

  1. Warshak, R. A. (2003). Bringing Sense to Parental Alienation: A Look at the Disputes and the Evidence. Family Law Quarterly 37: 273-301
  2. Warshak, R. A. (2010). Divorce Poison: How to Protect Your Family from Bad-mouthing and Brainwashing. New York: Harper Collins.
  3. Warshak, R. A. (2002). Misdiagnosis of Parental Alienation Syndrome. American Journal of Forensic Psychology 20: 31-52
  4. Warshak, R. A. (2001). Current Controversies Regarding Parental Alienation Syndrome. American Journal of Forensic Psychology 19: 29-59
  5. Bala, N.; Fidler, B.; Goldberg, D.; Houston, C. (2007). Alienated Children and Parental Separation: Legal Responses from Canada's Family Courts, Queens Law Journal 33: 79-138
  6. Warshak, R. A. (2003). Bringing Sense to Parental Alienation: A Look at the Disputes and the Evidence. Family Law Quarterly 37: 273-301
  7. Bernet, W. (2008). Parental Alienation Disorder and DSM-V, The American Journal of Family Therapy '36 (5): 349-366
  8. Bow, J.N.; Gould JW; Flens JR (2009). Examining Parental Alienation in Child Custody Cases: A Survey of Mental Health and Legal Professionals, The American Journal of Family Therapy 37 (2): 127-145