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Murray A. Straus

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Murray A. Straus
Murray Straus.jpg
Born 1926
Occupation Sociologist
URL pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/

Murray Arnold Straus (born 1926)[1] is a Professor of Sociology and founder and Co-Director of the Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire. In 2008 he earned the Award for Distinguished Lifetime Contributions to Research on Aggression, International Society For Research on Aggression.

CTS method

The CTS method (from Conflict Tactics Scale) is based on scientifically designed and analyzed surveys of partners. It is asked in a way that will guarantee a largely objective result: People are asked independently, to nominate their experience of violent tactics within a defined time period and describe the experience, but not to make statements about the causes or consequences. Such statements would bring subjective reviews into play. This method has been increasingly refined.

The fact of the conflicting results made on the following starting situation closely:

  • For men the concession of an experience of violence by women regularly means a psychic and social disaster that sometimes ends in suicide.
  • For women, the declaration of an experience of violence by men regularly means a physical, psychological, social and legal appreciation.[2]

The study by Murray A. Straus (put online in October 2007) examined the dominance and symmetry in partner relationships of university students in 32 (!) Countries and showed that violence almost everywhere emanates more by women than by men. Exceptions are Iran, Tanzania, Greece and Brazil. In the overall result, the distribution looks like the right can be seen.

Unveiling of female violence

The unveiling of female perpetrators in the area of domestic violence began in 1980 when Murray Straus, Richard Gelles[wp] and Suzanne Steinmetz, published a comparative study on this topic in the U.S. All three were considered to date, especially in feminist circles, as experts in the field of "spousal abuse". In all their previous studies Straus and his colleagues had assumed that battered husbands were a rare occurrence and in any case would not be seriously injured. The 1980 study was a more thorough investigation of these assumptions undertaken when the team noted the absence of evidence underlying these assumptions in the more than 30 works comprising the body of knowledge at that point. They came to the surprising conclusion that, overall, 11.6 percent of women, but 12 percent of the men had stated the had been beaten, slapped, kicked, bitten, pelted with objects or to have been otherwise attacked. (Some studies, the "physical force" on the preconceived notion, even came to 25 percent of attacked men compared with 16.5 percent of women.) For each 1.8 million female victims there are two million male victims. If a woman was attacked for each 17.5 seconds, then every 15.7 seconds a man was attacked. This concealment of relevant information, as Murray Straus noted, "promotes some annoying questions about scientific ethics to light". After renewed, yet thorough examination of the data Straus and his colleagues concluded: In a quarter of cases were of violence alone by the man, while half of all cases were exclusively by the woman, with the balance involving both without a specified sequence.

The representatives of the women's movement were suddenly not so happy with their former idols. The feminist assumption threatened to falter. Many researchers in the field of domestic violence now attempted studies of their own to prove that the study by Straus, Gelles and Steinmetz was a singular aberration - but they had to realize that their own results confirmed the original studies findings. Some studies even showed even more dramatic results: for example, American high school students females were four times as likely as male students to be the only violator against a member of the other gender participant of the event reported (5.7 % : 1.4 %). A study in New Zealand found that women and men committed slight violence against the opposite sex in the ratio of 36 to 22 percent, severe violence even in the ratio of 19 to 6 percent. Straus also interviewed women in shelters had sought refuge. Again, he found that about half of them had attacked their partners on their own.

Straus was ignored from then by the feminist fighting literature[3], quoted from earlier. Likewise, he found himself exposed to personal attacks and slander. The chairman of the "Canadian Association of Violence against Women", Pat Marshall, spread the rumor that Straus would mistreat his own wife - she apologized to him only after repeated requests. Even fiercer treatment was given to Suzanne Steinmetz, the woman in Straus' research group: She received bomb threats, and her children were told they were targeted by fanatics. Apparently without any awareness of the contradictions inherent in their actions, the supporters of feminist ideologies of violence attacked us to enforce their view that women are far less violent than men.[4]

Woozle effect

The Woozle effect[wp], also known as evidence by citation[5], or a woozle, occurs when frequent citation of previous publications that lack evidence misleads individuals, groups and the public into thinking or believing there is evidence, and nonfacts become urban myths[wp] and factoids[wp].[6]

According to Richard J. Gelles[wp], the term "woozle effect" was coined by Beverly Houghton in 1979.[7] Other researchers have attributed the term to Gelles (1980)[8] and Gelles and Murray A. Straus (1988).[9][10] Gelles and Straus argue that the woozle effect describes a pattern of bias seen within social sciences and which is identified as leading to multiple errors in individual and public perception, academia, policy making and government. A woozle is also a claim made about research which is not supported by original findings.[11]

In the 1998 book "Intimate Violence", Gelles and Straus use the Winnie-the-Pooh[wp] woozle to illustrate how poor practice in research and self-referential research causes older research to be taken as fresh evidence causing error and bias.[6]

Articles

Books

The Primordial Violence (2013)
Behind Closed Doors - Violence in the American Family (1980)

Papers

Murray Straus (2004)[13]

Studies

References

  1. The Online Books Page: Online Books by Murray A. Straus
  2. T.R.E. Lentze: Gewalt ist weiblich
  3. It is noteworthy that in Wikipedia only Richard James Gelles[wp] has an article and in the article Conflict tactics scale[wp] is explained in an extensive paragraph, why Murray is wrong.
  4. Arne Hoffmann: Häusliche Gewalt ist weiblich, Novo-Magazin 45, March/Abril 2000
  5. Murray A. Strauss: "Processes Explaining the Concealment and Distortion of Evidence on Gender Symmetry in Partner Violence", European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 74 (13), pp. 227-232, 14 July 2007
  6. 6.0 6.1 Richard J. Gelles, Murray Arnold Straus: Intimate violence, Simon and Schuster 1988, ISBN 978-0-671-61752-3, p. 39
  7. Jean Malone, Andrea Tyree, K. Daniel O'Leary: Generalization and Containment: Different Effects of Past Aggression for Wives and Husbands, Journal of Marriage and Family 51 (3), August 1989, pp. 687–697. Quote: Gelles (1980) suggested that the 'woozle' effect, first named by Houghton (1979), is operating in the cycle-of-violence area to magnify findings and to ignore peculiarities of sampling issues.
  8. Linda Nilsen: Father-daughter relationships: contemporary research and issues. Routledge Academic 2012, ISBN 978-1-84872-933-9, p. 4
  9. Donald D. Dutton, Kenneth Corvo: "Transforming a flawed policy: A call to revive psychology and science in domestic violence research and practice", Aggression and Violent Behavior 11 (5), 2006, p. 466
  10. Miriam K. Ehrensaft: "Intimate partner violence: Persistence of myths and implications for intervention". Children and Youth Services Review 30 (3), 2009, p. 279-286
  11. Richard J. Gelles, Murray Arnold Straus: Intimate violence. Simon and Schuster 1988, ISBN 978-0-671-61752-3, p. 28, chapter 2
  12. Murray A. Straus' website: Books
  13. Spare the Rod: Legal and Religious Challenges in Raising Children of the Book, Family Forum Event Featuring Murray A. Straus, October 6, 2004

External links

  • Website: pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/
  • Wikipedia has an article about Conflict tactics scale
  • Erin Pizzey: Murray Straus on how domestic violence is not one-sided, A Voice for Men UK on 28 May 2013 (Erin Pizzey pays tribute to Murray Straus for his brave stance on the truth behind intimate partner abuse.)
  • Youtube-logo.png Prof. Murray Straus on Falsification of Domestic Violence Statistics (Conference on Violence, Conflict and Unity in the Family, at Ariel University, 29 April 2013) (Size: 48:26 min.)
  • Refuting 40 years of lies about domestic violence (Erin Pizzey in interview with Dean Esmay, talking about domestic violence and Murray A. Straus), A Voice for Men on December 19, 2012
  • Youtube-logo.png Spare the Rod: Legal and Religious Challenges in Raising Children of the Book (Uploaded on 16.07.2012) (Size: 28:42 min.) (Murray A. Straus shared highlights of his more than three decades of research at the Family Forum Series event. Since anger, aggression and violence are among the most frequent side-effects of punishment, The Reverend Dr. John Westerhoff, an Episcopal priest and theologian-in-residence at St Luke's Episcopal Church in Atlanta, recommended instead setting appropriate boundaries for children.)
  • Youtube-logo.png Research on Spanking (Uploaded on 26.11.2012) (Size: 3:31 min.) (Murray Straus, PhD and Elizabeth Gershoff, PhD who are nationally recognized researchers on Corporal Punishment talk about the what Science tells us about the long-term effects of spanking children.)
  • Vimeo-logo.png Murray Straus, University of New Hampshire (Abril 21, 2010) (Time: 5:47 min.)
  • Youtube-logo.png Presentation about partner violence (Conference in Sacramento, California, 2008) (Size: 56:30 min.) (Part 1 summarizes results from many studies which show that: (1) Women perpetrate and initiate physical attacks on partners at the same or higher rate as men. (2) Most partner violence is mutual. (3) Partner violence has multiple causes, only one of which is to preserve a patriarchal societal and family system. (4) Motives for partner violence are parallel for men and women. (5) Self-defense explains only a small percent of partner violence by women. (6) Men cause more fear and injury, but about a third of the injuries and deaths are inflicted by female partners. Part 2 provides empirical evidence that these research results are often denied, suppressed or misrepresented. This includes publications of the National Institute of Justice and scientific journals. Part 3 argues that ignoring this overwhelming evidence has crippled prevention and treatment programs and suggests ways in which prevention and treatment efforts might be improved by changing ideologically-based programs to programs based on evidence from the past 30 years of research.)