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New World Order
New World Order is a term referred to key changes in the power-political order on international level.
Treaty of Tordesillas - 1494
After Christopher Columbus[wp] had reached in 1492 for the Spanish crown America, the competition between the maritime powers Portugal and Spain intensified. Pope Alexander VI., for both Catholic monarchies the highest authority, acted as referee and so the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas[wp] was accomplishment. He should avoid an armed confrontation between the two then most important Catholic powers, as he divided the world into a Portuguese and Spanish half.
Portugal wanted to retain control of the sea route to India along the African coast, specifically it was to secure the lucrative spice trade in the Pacific region and Africa indemnify the route of Spanish influences. Spain, by contrast, the control and the rights of the only recently discovered by Christopher Columbus in western countries wanted to secure (the held for India America).
The other major naval powers of the time - England, France, Holland - did not recognize the Treaty of Tordesillas, since he ignored their own imperial ambitions. Nevertheless, this agreement characterizes the world order of the then colonial era began and the associated division of the world into spheres of influence of European great powers.
Congress of Vienna - 1814/15
The Congress of Vienna[wp] held from 18 September 1814 to 9 June 1815 established in Europe many borders newly and defined new states. The occasion was the French Revolution[wp] and the Napoleonic Wars[wp], which had previously changed the political map of Europe significantly.
Under the leadership of the Austrian foreign minister Prince Metternich[wp] advised politically empowered representatives from around 200 European states, dominions, corporations and cities, including all major powers of Europe with the exception of the Ottoman Empire. The leading role played by the five major powers Russia, United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and the restored French monarchy and the Church State. Germany's problems were given the breadth of the other European matters discussed separately.
The Congress of Vienna drew up his results in commissions, which was a fluent technical innovation. There was, among other things, a Committee for the Germans, one for the European affairs, one for territories issues, one for the river and one for the slave trade. A formal "Assembly" never came together. The conference proceedings (Acte final) only bears the signatures of the eight major powers Austria, Spain, France, Great Britain, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, and Sweden (in that order). The German federal acts, the General Provisions are recorded (Articles 1 to 11) in the conference proceedings, was signed separately by the representatives of the German states. The main antagonist of Metternich was Tsar Alexander I[wp]. In addition, the British envoy played Castlereagh[wp] and the representatives of the defeated France, Talleyrand[wp], the most important roles.
The Congress worked on five overarching principles, but these are partially the subsequent construction of the historian. The concept of legitimacy in this context means the liquidation of the Napoleonic system of states and the restoration of the ancient dynasties (Bourbons, Guelph, etc.). In this context, including the principle of the restoration of the pre-revolutionary political and social conditions. Although the restoration should not go so far that all the changes that have occurred since 1789 should be reversed, but very probably should any future revolutionary aspirations of a bolt to be advanced. These included not only the freedom, but also the national movements of the time. To secure and enforce this objective, the delegations expressed their support on the one hand a strong monarchical authority inside and the other on the interstate solidarity of the country to the outside.
Although the conflicts of interest during the course of the Congress have significantly worsened, as they were nevertheless united in the creation of a European balance system to prevent future wars, although the practical implementation given the different political interests very difficult.
Main goals of the Congress of Vienna
- Restoration: restoration of the political condition of 1792
- Legitimacy: justification of the claims of the dynasty of the Ancien Régime
- Solidarity: reciprocal protection of royal interests against revolutionary ideas and movements
Main results of the Congress of Vienna were:
- Concert of Europe[wp]: the balance of the five great powers France[wp], Austria[wp], Great Britain[wp], Russia[wp] and Prussia[wp]. At the expense of France and the re-partition of Poland, the great powers of Prussia, Austria and Russia were strengthened.
- Holy Alliance[wp]
- German Federal Act: Basic Law of the German Confederation[wp]
- Swiss neutrality: international recognition
- Papal States[wp]: restoration under Pope Pius VII
Treaty of Versailles - 1919
The Treaty of Versailles[wp] ended the World War I[wp] formally. He was at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 at the Palace of Versailles from the powers of the Triple Entente[wp] and its allies largely fixed until May 1919.
The insurmountable task of the Paris Peace Conference was enormous. Simplistically, one can define six problem areas:
- Germany, who defeated main rival, whose growing power had destroyed the European balance after the conviction, especially the European victors and its power potential should be reduced as well as its territorial expansion.
- The Austria-Hungary collapsed and the transformation of its territories into numerous autonomous national states. Thus was the question of ethnic minorities in these new nation-states on the program - which concerned the north, the Poles, in the northwest of the Czechs and Slovaks, to the west, the Germans, in the south, the Croats, Serbs and Slovaks in the east Hungary, Bulgarians and Romanians . Was also unclear how the dispute between Italy and Austria to South Tyrol should be moved and adopted that the development of the conflict between Serbia and the combining Slavs and Italy.
- Russia, which in 1917 became communist, had been transformed from an ally in a potential threat to the West. It was quite frankly, that development would take the non-Russian minorities living in Russia, since Russia was during the conference in the Civil War, later in the war with Poland. The European Western powers supported the counter-revolutionary forces that fought against the Red Army, and multiply the option of a direct military lntervention was considered.
- After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire was to clarify was how to deal with the non-Turkish possessions in the Middle East. Here French and British interests were equally addressed, especially in the Arab countries. Likewise awaited the serious conflicts between Bulgarians and Turks, and especially between Greeks and Turks, who until 1922 led to an armed conflict and the defeat of Greece in 1920, a solution.
- The German colonies had already fallen early in the war to the British. It was unclear how further should be to deal with these regions, especially since the war in Africa had been conducted on the Allied troops, mainly from the Union of South Africa. In this way, the question of the international legal status of the British dominions was linked to the Paris negotiations.
- With the German occupation of the leased area Jiaozhou Bay, Japan had gained a foothold on the Chinese mainland, the thought of it seems to extend. This included the East Asian region and the potential conflict between Japan and the U.S. on the topics discussed in Paris.
The solution to these enormous challenges were offset by very different goals: The U.S. wanted a new, supranational world order, France wanted revenge and security, the United Kingdom a new balance of forces that secured him the existence and expansion of the British Empire, Italy was going to be a great power. The Treaty of Paris failed all along the line, and not only in relation to Germany, but also in regard to Turkey and the Middle East. The current crises in the Middle East can be traced back in its essential features to the Versailles decisions.
Quote: «After national movement, industrialization and imperialism were the classic great power politics, as they represented France and Britain, no more and the new approach a certain extent post-nationalist world government, as it was conceived in the United States, not yet capable of the gigantic problems which presented to the output of the first world war to solve.»
Foundation of Turkey
The territory of modern Turkey should be largely dismembered. Greece was the city of Smyrna (turkish İzmir) and parts of western Anatolia awarded the Adana region should go to the Italians and the French possessions in addition to Syria should also include Cilicia. In the eastern parts of present-day Turkey with the cities of Kars, Ardahan, Erzurum and an Armenian state should arise. South and east of the Euphrates, the Kurdish autonomous region was awarded. Mustafa Kemal Pasha[wp] organized from 19 May 1919 the political and military resistance against these plans. Were particularly violent in 1920, the battles with Greece[wp]. The war ended on 9 September 1922 with the reconquest of Smyrna. After the cessation of hostilities, there was ethnic cleansing in Greece and Turkey, as well "Turks" of Greek territory and "Greeks" were expelled from Turkish territory. After the victory of Turkey's 24 July 1923 with the Treaty of Lausanne[wp], the provisions of the Treaty of Sèvres[wp] revised. The Treaty limits the valid to date of the new state were recognized under international law. At the same time, the mutual expulsion of minorities was legalized. After all foreign military units left Anatolia, Mustafa Kemal Pasha proclaimed the Republic on 29 October 1923.
Palestine, Middle East
The major powers had disregarded generously the self-determination claims established by themself. Then Arab leaders organized with reference to the Paris agreements elections to the First General Syrian Congress and established two Arab kingdoms, which were of course not recognized by France and Britain. This was split rather in April 1920 in San Remo the Middle East to work as intended, with France Syria and Lebanon, Great Britain Iraq, Palestine and Jordan took over and Arab uprisings groups were reflected by force of arms. However, neither of the two colonial powers was glad of the recent acquisitions, but this region was so thoroughly destabilized by the agreements of Paris and San Remo, that the problems caused by them could not be resolved until today.
Yalta Conference - 1945
The Yalta Conference[wp] (sometimes called the Crimean Conference) was a diplomatic meeting of allied leaders Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.), Winston Churchill (United Kingdom) and Joseph Stalin (USSR) in located on the Crimean resort of Yalta on 4 to 11 February 1945. It was the second of three Allied summit of the "Big Three" during the World War II[wp] (1939-1945). Themes of the conference were the division of Germany, the balance of power in Europe after the end of the war and the war against the Japanese Empire.
The beginning of the Cold War[wp] prevented a planned peace conference and the reorganization of the world remained incomplete. As a result, the two superpowers USA and the Soviet Union took political, economic, technical and military efforts to shape the world order according to their ideas.
The term New World Order is attributed wrongly to conspiracy theories. It is only natural that after the end of the Cold War, the United States would try as the only remaining superpower in the world to make their mark and to strive for a world order in their favor. In addition to the end of the Cold War, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of China, there are processes of increasing global interdependence in all areas (economy, politics, culture, environment, communications, etc.), described with the term globalization[wp]. These operations are controversial proponents of globalization, anti-globalization, European and Euro-critics and supporters very differently. While opponents of globalization and European critics will also defames ever as a conspiracy theorist.
Quote: «Bei der Neuen Weltordnung handelt es sich um ein flexibles, aber in sich schlüssiges Konzept, das inhaltlich innerhalb der westlichen Funktionseliten weitgehend unumstritten ist, und das, wie gesagt, auf die globale Durchsetzung eines radikalen Kapitalismus abzielt. Wesentliche traditionelle Dimensionen des Menschseins, nämlich alles, was mit historischer und kultureller sozialer Einbindung und Verwurzelung zu tun hat, bleiben dabei auf der Strecke, insbesondere Völker, Religionen und die Idee der Familie als Basis der Gesellschaft. (...) Es handelt sich buchstäblich um die Liquidierung der Gesellschaft, in dem dreifachen Sinne von Zerstörung, Verflüssigung und Monetarisierung.» - Manfred Kleine-Hartlage Quote: «The New World Order is a flexible but consistent approach, the function within the Western elite is largely uncontroversial content, and, as I said, aiming at the global implementation of a radical capitalism. Significant traditional dimensions of human existence, namely everything that has to do with historical and cultural roots and social integration, while remaining on the track, in particular nations, religions, and the idea of the family as the basis of society. (...) It is literally the liquidation of the Company, in the triple sense of destruction, liquefaction and monetization.»
- Manfred Kleine-Hartlage: "Neue Weltordnung". Zukunftsplan oder Verschwörungstheorie?, Edition Antaios 2011, ISBN 3-935063-64-4
- Die Pariser Friedensverträge 1919 und ihre Auswirkungen[ext] (21 Seiten)
- Eine neue Weltordnung: Die Pariser Friedensverträge 1919 und ihre Auswirkungen - Ulrich Herbert[wp] (10 Seiten - Text ohne Bilder)
- Manfred Kleine-Hartlage: "Neue Weltordnung": Interview mit "Geopolitika", 10. Februar 2013
- Manfred Kleine-Hartlage: "Neue Weltordnung", 2. Dezember 2011