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Body modification

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Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual or aesthetic. It can range from the socially acceptable decoration (e.g., pierced ears on women in many societies), to body resizing through careful eating and exercise, to religiously mandated (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures) to the rebellious (e.g., nostril piercings in punk subculture).

Nearly every human society practices or has practiced some type of body modification in its broadest definition, from Maori tattoos to Victorian corsets to modern breast implants.

A fetishist may have all sorts of body modifications, especially if they have a specific fetish that concentrates on, or requires, body modification. In BDSM, it is common for a dominant to have socially-norm body modifications (e.g. tatoos in the UK) but less usual body modification is usually a topic for a submissive, decreed by the Dominant.

One controversial form of body modification is the attempt to resemble another race, such as Asians having their epicanthic folds modified to resemble non-Asian eyes or skin lightened with dyes, suntanning, increase in lips, or buttocks size by Caucasians, or African-Americans straightening their hair or getting a nose job.

"Disfigurement" and "mutilation" are terms used by opponents of body modification to describe certain types of modifications, especially non-consensual ones, caused perhaps through torture, battle or accident. "Genital mutilation" is also used somewhat more controversially to describe certain kinds of socially prescribed modifications to the genitals, such as circumcision, female circumcision, and castration. Those opposed to the practice of sexual reassignment surgery may consider it genital mutilation, done for psychological reasons; this is universally rejected by those in favour of it, who more often consider the reasons medical.

Body art[wp] is art made on, or consisting of, the human body and might include some forms of body modification.

Some types of body modification

surgical
  1. Mainstream
  2. Extreme
    • Tongue splitting[wipi]
  3. Sexual
non-surgical


Body Modification is - in the simplest, obvious terms - the voluntary (in this context) modification of the human body.

Tattooing, piercing, cutting, branding, amputation, plastic surgery[wp], ...[2]



Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM "edgeplay" or aesthetic. It can range from the socially acceptable decoration (e.g., pierced ears in many societies), to the overtly religiously mandated (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures) to corporal punishment, to provocative statement by the rebellious (e.g., tongue splitting[wipi]). Some even become physically addicted to the adrenaline/endorphin release associated with a painful procedure in a way analogous to that experienced by those who "self-injure". Some people experience an abstract but distinct compulsion to modify their body that appears to have no underlying or external reason.

Some futurists, such as those who identify as transhumanist, believe that eventually humans will pursue body modification with more advanced technological means, such as permanently implanted devices to enhance mental and physical capabilities, thereby becoming cyborgs[wp], this has been explored in fiction such as The Six Million Dollar Man or Dr. Who's Cybermen. For the substantial number of people with heart pacemakers and brain implants such as cochlear implants and electrical brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease[wp], this is already a reality.

Body art[sm-201] is any body modification for artistic or aesthetic reasons. However the term is often extended to all socially significant markings, often displaying the bearer belongs to some hereditary (e.g. tribal), age, religious or other group, and therefore on body parts that remain or can be 'decently' exposed in public, except if the group is private or even secret.

Types of body modification

  • Artificial skull deformation[sm-201]
  • Anal stretching using Butt plugs - Also see: Anal Stretching[ext]
  • Body piercing - permanent placement of jewelry through an artificial fistula; sometimes further modified by stretching
  • Branding - controlled burnsing or cauterizing of tissue to encourage intentional scarring
  • Breast implants[sm-201] - Insertion of plastic bags filled with silicone rubber or saline solution into the breasts to increase their size
  • Breast ironing[sm-201] - Pressing (sometimes with a heated object) the breasts of a pubescent female to prevent their growth.
  • Eyeball tattooing[sm-201] - Injection of a pigment into the cornea[wp].
  • Ear piercing[sm-201] - the most common type of body modification
  • Ear shaping[wp] (which includes Ear cropping[wp], Ear pointing[wp] or "elfing")
  • Extraocular implant[sm-201] (eyeball jewelry) - The implantation of jewelry in the outer layer of the eye.
  • Female genital cutting[wp] - removal of the labia minora[wp] or the clitoral hood
  • Frenectomy[sm-201] - Also see: Genital Frenectomy[ext]
  • Genital beading[wp] - also known as pearling
  • Genital bisection[wp] - splitting of both the underside and the top of the penis, including Genital inversion
  • Male circumcision - removal of the foreskin, sometimes also the frenulum--conversely some men choose to take up foreskin restoration.
  • Meatotomy[sm-201] - splitting of the underside of the glans penis
  • Headsplitting[sm-201] - splitting of both the underside and the top of the glans penis
  • Nullification[sm-201] involves the voluntary removal of body parts. Body parts that are removed by those practicing body nullification are for example Fingers, Penis (penectomy), Testicles (castration), Clitoris, Labia or Nipples. Sometimes people who desire a nullification may be diagnosed with body integrity identity disorder or apotemnophilia.
  • Scarification[sm-201] - cutting or removal of dermis with the intent to encourage intentional scarring or keloiding
  • Subdermal implant - implantation of an object that resides entirely below the dermis, including Horn implants [5]
  • Subincision[sm-201] - splitting of the underside of the penis, also called urethrotomy
  • Tattooing[sm-201] - the mechanical placement of ink in the dermis
  • Tongue splitting[wipi] - bisection of the tongue similar to a snake's
  • Transdermal implant - implantation of an object below the dermis, but which exits the skin at one or more points
  • Trepanation - Also see: Trepanation[ext]
    Ref - Nullification, the voluntary removal of body part
    Ref: What is TOO Extreme for Body Modification
    Ref ModCon: The Secret World Of Extreme Body Modification by Shannon Larratt[wp]
  • Dermal anchoring similar to transdermal implants
  • Microdermal implants - Also see: Microdermal[ext]
  • Nipple removal - Also see: Nipple Removal[ext]
  • Nipple splitting - Also see: Nipple Splitting[ext]
  • Scrotal implants - Also see: Scrotal Implant[ext]
  • Silicone injection - Also see: Silicone Injection[ext]
  • Tongue frenectomy - Also see: Tongue Frenectomy[ext]
  • Tooth filing - Also see: Tooth Filing[ext]
  • Scrotal bisection - splitting of the scrotum
  • Superincision - splitting of the top of the penis

Body modifications occurring as the end result of long term activities or practices:

  • Corsetry or tightlacing[sm-201] - binding of the waist and shaping of the torso
  • Cranial binding[wp] - modification of the shape of infants' heads, now extremely rare
  • Foot binding[wp] - Physical compression of the feet to modify them for aesthetic reasons
  • Non-surgical elongation of organs by prolonged stretching using weights or spacing devices. Some cultural traditions prescribe for or encourage members of one sex (or both) to have one organ stretched till permanent re-dimensioning has occurred, such as
    • The 'giraffe-like' stretched necks (sometimes also other organs) of women among the Burmese Kayan tribe, the result of wearing brass coils around them. This compresses the collarbone and upper ribs but is not medically dangerous. It is a myth that removing the rings will cause the neck to 'flop'; Padaung women remove them regularly for cleaning etc.
    • Stretched lip piercings[wp] - achieved by inserting ever larger plates, such as those made of clay used by some Amazonian tribes.

Besides the obvious extreme forms of body modification more simple forms of change exist. Modify the movie shows that modification came come in a variety of forms: piercing, flesh suspension, make-up, tattoos, branding, stretching, scarification, splitting, plastic surgery, tanning, waxing, colored contacts, hair modifications, body building, tooth modification, implants, elective amputations, and trans-gender surgery. Of course this is not an exhaustive list but the idea should be known that almost anything that is physically done to the body is considered modification.

Controversy

Some sources of controversy stem from the notion of attempting to artificially beautify the natural form of the body, often leading to charges of disfigurement and mutilation. Extreme forms of Body Modification are occasionally viewed as symptomatic of body dysmorphic disorder, other mental illnesses, or as an expression of unchecked vanity. Often the general public are unprepared for some forms of modification and reports of the ostracism of modified individuals are widespread within the modification community. Unlicensed surgery performed outside of a medical environment can often be life-threatening, and is illegal in most countries and states.

"Disfigurement" (a subjective term) and "mutilation" (regardless of any appreciation this always applies objectively whenever a bodily function is gravely diminished or lost, as with castration) are terms used by opponents of body modification to describe certain types of modifications, especially non-consensual ones. Those terms are used fairly uncontroversially to describe the victims of torture, who have endured damage to ears, eyes, feet, genitalia, hands, noses, teeth, and/or tongues, including amputation, burning, flagellation, piercing, skinning, and wheeling. "Genital mutilation" is also used somewhat more controversially to describe certain kinds of socially prescribed modifications to the genitals, such as circumcision, female circumcision, castration, and surgeries performed to conform the genitals of individuals with intersex conditions to those of typical males or females.[3]

References

See also

External links

Template:NavCorsetry

This article based on an article Body modification (25 November 2012) from the free Encyklopedia Wipipedia. The Wipipedia article is published under GNU-License for free Documentation. In Wipipedia is a List of Authors available those who worked on the text before being incorporated in WikiMANNia.
This article based on an article Body modification (21 October 2021) from the free Encyklopedia SM-201. The SM-201 article is published under GNU-License for free Documentation. In SM-201 is a List of Authors available those who worked on the text before being incorporated in WikiMANNia.