Hate crimes occur when a person attacks another person solely because he or she belongs to a certain social group, according to his or her age, sex, gender, religion, race, ethnicity, socio-economic status, nationality, ideology or party affiliation, disability or sexual orientation.
In their book Hate Crimes: Criminal Law and Identity Politics, James B. Jacobs and Kimberly Potter criticize hate crime legislation for exacerbating conflict between groups. They argue that by defining crimes committed by one group against another, rather than by individuals against their society, labelling the crimes as "hate crimes" makes groups feel persecuted by others, and that this impression of persecution can incite a violent reaction and therefore lead to a real increase in crime.
A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of their membership (or perceived membership) of a certain social group or race.
- Stotzer, R.: Comparison of Hate Crime Rates Across Protected and Unprotected Groups, The Williams Institute, 06-2007
- Jacobs, James B. & Kimberly Potter. (1998). Hate Crimes: Criminal Law and Identity Politics., New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 130-144
- Hate crime, Dictionary.com "Also called bias crime."