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Domestic abuse

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Main PageViolence → Domestic abuse


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Domestic abuse is ...

Purpose of the page

'Abuse' is a general term covering a range of behaviours including physical, sexual and emotional factors.

This page provides an overview with links to other Wikipedia pages which cover different types of abuse in more detail.

Summary

(NB this summary will be completed when the whole page is ready)

The overall picture is that, taken together, abuse is widespread and not confined to any sex,gender, or cultural group etc.

Approach and assumptions

Use of statistics

This page cites the statistical evidence, gives the sources and leaves the reader to make value judgements. For this reason we will not use weasel words[wp] like 'overwhelming', 'insignificant', 'the majority' etc unless they are supported with numerical evidence.

Avoiding polarisation

We avoid the use of terms like 'victim' and 'perpetrator' as these imply that abuse only takes place between one innocent person and one abuser. The evidence shows (citation) that nearly all abuse is bi-directional, at least in the early stages.

The victim/perpetrator model also implies a single victim whereas, in reality, the whole domestic relationship can be damaged, in particular, the children involved.

Sources of evidence

Problems with the evidence

  1. In trying to write a global page, we are aware that the majority of the available evidence is from Western countries.
  2. The majority of studies of DA look only at females victims. For example Partner Abuse Worldwide (2013)[1] looks at Domestic Abuse studies outside EU/US (English speaking developed nations. Only 73 out of 200 studies included both male and female victims.
  3. It is easy to 'cherry pick' evidence which supports a statement. This usually involves choosing parts of, or quotations from, single studies which fit the narrative. This pages use secondary sources which combine evidence from several sources (see 'Combined results' below).

Combined results

There are two main ways to combine the results from a range of studies to avoid bias (and reduce 'cherry picking'): research reviews and meta-analyses.

  • A research review (systematic review) summarises the evidence available.
  • A meta-analysis uses statistics to combine the results of the review.

Preamble

2 Throughout use the focus on children by using 'boys and girls'.

Violent people are violent! Domestic abuse is not in isolation from other violence.

Definition

This definition has been generated by combining a number of others. There is wide agreement between the sources: Medical Dictionary;
Domestic abuse is abuse of one person by another person with whom they are living, have lived, or with whom a significant relationship exists.

The term 'abuse' covers a number of different harmful actions including: verbal, sexual, financial, physical (domestic violence) or psychological abuse, and includes emotional unavailability and controlling and coercive behaviour.

Controlling behaviour is a range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and/or dependent by isolating them from sources of support, exploiting their resources and capacities for personal gain, depriving them of the means needed for independence, resistance and escape and regulating their everyday behaviour.

Coercive behaviour is an act or a pattern of acts of assault, threats, humiliation and intimidation or other abuse that is used to harm, punish, or frighten their victim.

This definition includes so called ‘honour’ based violence, female genital mutilation (FGM) and forced marriage

Abusive behaviour cuts across all racial, ethnic, educational, and socioeconomic boundaries.

Bidirectional - victim/perpetrator

Domestic abuse is often presented as victim and p. However, very little abuse is one-sided. Almost all abuse has a history of escalation and joint participation. Bidirectional.

General bias: If gender neutral scenario related and listeners asked for gender of victim, more asume female. If words victim and perpetrator are used (instead of persan A, person B), then even more asume female.

V/P model focuses on the two adults, however, Children are the main victims of abuse….. Effects on mental health.

Types of Abuse

General observations

The effectively study, legislate and fund, domestic abuse is usually split into various categories of abuse. This process can leave a novice with the assumption that the categories are separate. In reality, domestic abuse is often multi-faceted and rarely does one category appear on its own. Physical and financial abuse have emotional consequences.

Physical

Domestic Violence

Grades of violence from mild to severe. Examples of these (from slapping to penectomy to death)

Charts or mentions of severity of effect between cultures, between sexes and between ages.

Prevalence of weapon use.

Sexual abuse

Attention.png In this article important informations are missing. You may help WikiMANNia by investigating the content and inserting it, or informing us.

Emotional/Psychological

Coercion

Attention.png In this article important informations are missing. You may help WikiMANNia by investigating the content and inserting it, or informing us.

Implied threats

Harassment and stalking

Verbal abuse

Online or digital

Financial abuse

Attention.png In this article important informations are missing. You may help WikiMANNia by investigating the content and inserting it, or informing us.

Prevalence

Attention.png In this article important informations are missing. You may help WikiMANNia by investigating the content and inserting it, or informing us.

(Basic statistics…)

Hetero and same-sex relationships

(If DA against men is ignored, then we are perpetuating DA as children will be raised in DA household and see this as normal behaviour.

Cultural differences

Attention.png In this article important informations are missing. You may help WikiMANNia by investigating the content and inserting it, or informing us.

Reporting differences

Attention.png In this article important informations are missing. You may help WikiMANNia by investigating the content and inserting it, or informing us.

Influencing factors

WHO report

Risk factors for both intimate partner and sexual violence include:

  • lower levels of education (perpetration of sexual violence and experience of sexual violence);
  • a history of exposure to child maltreatment (perpetration and experience);
  • witnessing family violence (perpetration and experience);
  • antisocial personality disorder (perpetration);
  • harmful use of alcohol (perpetration and experience);
  • having multiple partners or suspected by their partners of infidelity (perpetration);
  • attitudes that condone violence (perpetration);
  • community norms that privilege or ascribe higher status to men and lower status to women; and
  • low levels of women's access to paid employment.

Factors specifically associated with intimate partner violence include:

  • past history of violence
  • marital discord and dissatisfaction
  • difficulties in communicating between partners
  • male controlling behaviors towards their partners.

Factors specifically associated with sexual violence perpetration include:

  • beliefs in family honour and sexual purity
  • ideologies of male sexual entitlement
  • weak legal sanctions for sexual violence.

Gender inequality and norms on the acceptability of violence against women are a root cause of violence against women.

References

  1. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/236018381_Partner_Abuse_Worldwide

See also